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Research in the Sierra Madre Occidental of Eastern Sonora, Mexico:

Grasses of the Municipio de Yécora

by T.R. Van Devender

 

 

 

The Spanish common names are mostly from our interviews with residents in the Río Mayo region. A few are from Beetle and Johnson (1991). Voucher specimens are at ARIZ unless otherwise indicated (i.e., ASU, COCA).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 * = Definite or probable non-native species.

Aegopogon cenchroides Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.

Aegopogon tenellus (DC.) Trinius

Agrostis exarata Trinius

Agrostis scabra Willd.

Andropogon glomeratus (Walt.) B.S.P. [bushy beardgrass].

Aristida adscensionis L. [six-weeks threeawn].

Aristida appressa Vasey

Aristida arizonica Vasey

Aristida divaricata Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. [poverty threeawn].

Aristida jorullensis Kunth

Aristida laxa Cav. [threeawn].

Aristida marginalis Ekman [threeawn].

Aristida schiedeana Trinius & Rupr.; A. orcuttiana Vasey

Aristida ternipes Cav. var. gentilis (Henrard) Allred; A. hamulosa Henrard

Aristida ternipes Cav. var. ternipes [spider grass].

Arundinella palmeri Vasey ex Beal

*Arundo donax L. [giant cane; carrizo]. Native to the Old World.

*Avena fatua L. [wild oats; avena]. Native to Europe.

*Avena sativa L. [oats; avena]. Escaped cultivar from Europe.

Axonopus compressus (Swartz) P. Beauv.

Blepharoneuron tricholepis (Torrey) Nash [pine dropseed]. [COCA]

Bothriochloa barbinodis (Lag.) Herter; Andropogon barbinodis Lag. [cane beardgrass].

*Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng; Andropogon ischaemum L. Native to the Old World.

Bouteloua aristidoides (H.B.K.) Griseb. [needle grama; zacate saitilla].  

Bouteloua chondrosioides (H.B.K.) Bentham ex S. Watson [sprucetop grama].

Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torrey [sideoats grama; zacate de navaja, navajitas].

Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag. ex Griffiths [blue grama].

Bouteloua hirsuta Lag. [hairy grama].

Bouteloua parryi (E. Fourn.) Griffiths [Parry grama; zacate gusano].

Bouteloua radicosa (E. Fourn.) Griffiths [zacate sabanilla, navajitas].

Bouteloua repens (H.B.K.) Scribner & Merrill. [slender grama; zacate sabanilla, navajitas].

Brachiaria fasciculata (Swartz) Parodi; Panicum fasciculatum Swartz, Urochloa

            fasciculata (Swartz) R.D. Webster [browntop panicgrass].

Brachiaria plantaginea (Link) Hitchc.

Bromus anomalus Rupr. ex E. Fourn. [nodding brome].

Bromus carinatus Hooker & Arn. [California brome].

*Bromus catharticus Vahl; Bromus uniloides H.B.K., B. willdenovii Kunth [rescue grass]. Native to South America.

Bromus ciliatus L. [fringed brome]. (COCA)

Cathestecum brevifolium Swallen [false grama; zacate liebrero, zacate, borreguero].

Cenchrus echinatus L. [sandbur; guachapor].

Cenchrus spinifex Cav.; C. pauciflora Bentham, C. incertus M.A. Curtis [sandbur; guachapor].

Chloris chloridea (J. Presl) Hitchc.

Chloris submutica H.B.K. [papalote verdillo].

Chloris virgata Swartz [feather fingergrass].

*Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. [Bermuda grass]. Native to the Old World.

*Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) P. Beauv. [crowfoot grass]. Native to the Old World.

Diectomis fastigiata (Swartz) P. Beauv.

Digitaria argillacea (Hitchc. & Chase) Fernald

Digitaria bicornis (Lam.) Roemer & Schultes

Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler

Digitaria horizontalis Willd.

Digitaria insularis (L.) Mez ex Ekman; Trichachne insularis (L.) Nees

*Digitaria ischaemum (Schreber) Schreber [smooth crabgrass]. Native to Eurasia.

Digitaria panicea (Swartz) Urban

*Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. [common crabgrass]. Native to Europe.

*Digitaria ternata (A. Rich.) Stapf. Native to Africa.

*Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link [jungle rice]. Native to the Old World.

*Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) P. Beauv. [barnyard grass]. Native to the Old World.

Echinochloa holciformis (H.B.K.) Chase

*Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. [goose grass; zacate escoba]. Native to Eurasia.

Elymus arizonicus (Scribner & J.G. Smith) Gould; Agropyron arizonicum Scribner & J.G. Smith [wheat grass]. 

*Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Vign.-Lutati ex Janchen [stink grass]. Native to the Old World.

Eragrostis intermedia Hitchc. [plains lovegrass].

Eragrostis lugens Nees

Eragrostis maypurensis (H.B.K.) Steudel (COCA). 

Eragrostis mexicana (Hornem.) Link subsp. mexicana. [Mexican lovegrass.

Eragrostis pectinacea (Michx.) Nees var. miserrima (E. Fourn.) J. Reeder; Eragrostis arida Hitchc., E. tephrosanthos Schultes

Eragrostis pectinacea (Michx.) Nees var. pectinacea

Eragrostis pringlei Mattei; Eragrostis scribneriana Hitchc.

Eragrostis secundiflora J. Presl subsp. oxylepis (Torrey) S.D. Koch; Eragrostis oxylepis (Torrey) Torrey [red lovegrass]. (COCA)

Eriochloa acuminata (J. Presl) Kunth var. minor (Vasey) R.B. Shaw; Eriochloa gracilis (E. Fourn.) Hitchc. var. minor (Vasey) Hitchc. [cupgrass].

Eriochloa aristata Vasey [bearded cupgrass].

Eriochloa lemmonii Vasey & Scribner. Small southwestern cupgrass.

Erioneuron pulchellum (H.B.K.) Tateoka; Dasyochloa pulchella (H.B.K.) Steudel, Tridens pulchellus H.B.K.) Hitchc.[fluffgrass; zacate borreguero]. (COCA)

Gouinia virgata (J. Presl) Scribner [sorguillo].

*Hackelochloa granularis (L.) Kuntze [pitscale grass]. Native to the Old World.

Heteropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roemer & Schultes [tanglehead]. Tropical and warm regions worldwide.

 

*Heteropogon melanocarpus (Ell.) Bentham [sweet tanglehead]. Tropical and warm regions worldwide.

Hilaria belangeri (Steudel) Nash [curly mesquite].

Hilaria cenchroides H.B.K. [Madrean mesquite-grass].

*Hordeum murinum L. subsp. leporinum (Link) Arcangeli; Hordeum leporinum Link [wild barley; cebada]. Native to Europe.

Imperata brevifolia Vasey [satintail].

Lasiacis ruscifolia (H.B.K.) Hitchc. [negrito].

Leptochloa dubia (H.B.K.) Nees [green sprangletop].

Leptochloa panicea (Retz.) Ohwi subsp. brachiata (Steudel) N. Snow; L. filiformis (Lam.) P. Beauv., L. mucronata (Michx.) Kunth (misapplied) [red sprangletop].

Leptochloa panicoides (J. Presl) Hitchc. [sprangletop].

Luziola gracillima Prodoehl [pastito de agua]

Lycurus phalaroides H.B.K. [wolftail].

Lycurus phleoides H.B.K. [wolftail].

Lycurus setosus (Nutt.) C. Reeder [wolftail].

*Melinis repens (Willd.) Zizka subsp. repens; Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd.) C.E. Hubbard [Natal grass; zacate rosado, espiga colorada, alucema]. Introduced from South Africa.

Microchloa kunthii Desv. [zacate encorvado].

Muhlenbergia alamosae Vasey

Muhlenbergia annua (Vasey) Swallen [zacate liebrero].

Muhlenbergia argentea Vasey

Muhlenbergia arizonica Scribner

Muhlenbergia diversiglumis Trinius

Muhlenbergia dumosa Scribner ex Vasey [bamboo muhly; totchkam (Pima, C. J. Pennington, unpubl. data); carricillo, otatillo].

Muhlenbergia elongata Scribner ex Beal [tropical cliff muhly].

Muhlenbergia eludens C. Reeder

Muhlenbergia emersleyi Vasey [bullgrass; cola de zorra].

Muhlenbergia flavida Vasey

Muhlenbergia fragilis Swallen [zacate liebrero].

Muhlenbergia gooddingii Soderstrom

Muhlenbergia grandis Vasey [cola de zorra]. (ASU)

Muhlenbergia implicata (H.B.K.) Trinius

Muhlenbergia laxiflora Scribner ex Beal

Muhlenbergia longiligula Hitchc.

Muhlenbergia lucida Swallen

Muhlenbergia microsperma (DC.) Trinius [littleseed muhly].

Muhlenbergia minutissima (Steud.) Swallen [zacate liebrero].

Muhlenbergia montana (Nutt.) Hitchc. [mountain muhly].

Muhlenbergia palmeri Vasey (COCA)  

Muhlenbergia pectinata C. Goodding

Muhlenbergia polycaulis Scribner [cliff muhly].

Muhlenbergia rigens (Bentham) Hitchc. [deer grass; escobón, hierba del paisano; norr/nol (Pima, Reina 1993)].

Muhlenbergia rigida (H.B.K.) Trinius [purple muhly; norr/nol (Pima)].  

Muhlenbergia schmitzii Hackel

Muhlenbergia scoparia Vasey

Muhlenbergia shepherdii (Vasey) Swallen

Muhlenbergia straminea Hitchc. [screwleaf muhly].

Muhlenbergia tenella (H.B.K.) Trinius

Muhlenbergia texana Buckley [Texas muhly].

Muhlenbergia trifida Hackel

Oplismenus burmannii (Retz.) P. Beauv. [basket grass; zacate salado].

Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) P. Beauv. [basket grass; zacate salado].

Otatea acuminata (Munro) Calderón & Soderstrom subsp. aztecorum Guzmán, Anaya C. & Santana M. [bamboo; otate, bambu].  

Panicum acuminatum Swartz

Panicum bulbosum H.B.K. [bulb panicgrass; nor sha'i (Pima, Laferriére 1994)].

Panicum hallii Vasey [Hall's panicgrass].

Panicum hians Elliott

Panicum hirticaule J. Presl var. hirticaule [panicgrass]

Panicum trichoides Swartz [zacate salado].

Paspalum botteri (E. Fourn.) Chase

Paspalum convexum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. [camalote anual].

Paspalum distichum L. [knotgrass].

Paspalum humboldtianum Flügge

Paspalum langei (E. Fourn.) Nash

Paspalum lentiginosum J. Presl vel aff.

Paspalum paniculatum L.

Paspalum palmeri Chase

Paspalum pubiflorum Rupr. ex E. Fourn. var. pubiflorum

Paspalum setaceum Michx. var. muhlenbergii (Nash) D.J. Banks

Paspalum squamulatum E. Fourn.

Paspalum tenellum Willd. (COCA)

Paspalum virletii E. Fourn.

*Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link; Cenchrus ciliaris L. [buffelgrass]; zacate buffel]. Introduced from eastern Africa.

Pennisetum durum Beal. Cited in Martin et al. (1998). (ASU)

Pereilema crinitum J. Presl

*Phalaris minor Retz. [littleseed canary grass]. Native to the Mediterranean region.

Piptochaetium fimbriatum (H.B.K.) Hitchc. [pinyon ricegrass; hierba de la vejiga].

Piptochaetium virescens (H.B.K.) Parodi [ricegrass].

*Poa annua L. [annual bluegrass]. Native to Europe.

Poa bigelovii Vasey & Scribner [Bigelow bluegrass].

Polypogon elongatus H.B.K. (COCA)

*Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf. [rabbitfoot grass; zacate cola de zorra, hierba del caso]. Native to Europe.

Schizachyrium brevifolium (Swartz) Nees ex Büse; Andropogon brevifolius Swartz

 

Schizachyrium cirratum (Hackel) Wooton & Standley; Andropogon cirratum Hackel [Texas beardgrass].

Schizachyrium condensatum (H.B.K.) Nees; Andropogon condensatus H.B.K., A. microstachyus Desv. ex Ham.

Schizachyrium mexicanum (Hitchc.) A. Camus; Andropogon mexicanus Hitchc.

Schizachyrium sanguineum (Retz.) Alston var. hirtiflorum (Nees) Hatch; Andropogon hirtiflorus (Nees) Kunth

Schizachyrium semitectum (Swallen) J. Reeder; Andropogon semitectus Swallen

Schizachyrium tenerum Nees; Andropogon tener (Nees) Kunth

Setaria grisebachii E. Fourn. [Grisebach bristlegrass; zacate cola de zorra]. (COCA)

Setaria liebmannii E. Fourn. [bristlegrass; cola de zorra].

Setaria macrostachya H.B.K. [plains bristlegrass].

Setaria parviflora (Poiret) Kerguélen; S. geniculata (Lam.) P. Beauv. [knotroot bristlegrass].

*Setaria pumila(Poiret) Roemer & Schultes; S. glauca L., S. lutescens (Weigel) F.T. Hubbard [yellow bristlegrass]. Native to Europe.

Setariopsis auriculata (E. Fourn.) Scribner [plumerillo].

Setariopsis latiglumis (Vasey) Scribner

Sorghastrum nudipes Nash (COCA)

Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash [Indian grass; zacate dorado].

*Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench [milo, sorghum; malo maíz, sorgo]. Escaped cultivar, originally from the Old World.

*Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. [Johnson grass; zacate Johnson]. Native to the Old World.

Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br. [dropseed, smutgrass].

Trachypogon montufari (H.B.K.) Nees

Trachypogon secundus (J. Presl) Scribner [crinkleawn].

Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L. [gamagrass; maizillo, zacate maíz].

Tripsacum lanceolatum Rupr. ex E. Fourn. [Mexican gamagrass; maizillo, zacate maíz].

Tripsacum zopilotense Hernández X. & Randolph [gamagrass; maizillo, zacate maíz].

Trisetum deyeuxioides (H.B.K.) Kunth [pajiza del bosque]

*Triticum aestivum L. [wheat; trigo]. Escaped cultivar, originally from the Middle East.

Vulpia octoflora (Walter) Rydb. var. octoflora; Festuca octoflora Walter [six-weeks fescue].

*Zea mays L. subsp. mays [corn; hu’un (Pima, Reina 1993); maíz]. Escaped cultivar, from Mexico.

*Zea mays L. subsp. mexicana (Schrad.) H.H. Iltis; Euchlaena mexicana Schrad. [teosinte, maíz cocono]. Formerly cultivated by Maycoba Pima ©. W. Pennington, pers. comm. 1996).


Appendix 4. Additional grass species to be expected in the Municipio de Yécora based on their presence in other areas in the Río Mayo region. *Non-native.


Agrostis hyemalis (Walter) B.S.P. [bentgrass] -- Basaseachi.

Aristida pansa Wooton & Standley [Wooton threeawn] -- Talayotes.

Bouteloua barbata Lag. var. barbata [six-weeks grama] -- Tesopaco.

            Bouteloua barbata Lag. var. sonorae (Griffiths) Gould [Sonoran grama] -- Tónichi.

            Bouteloua rothrockii Vasey; B. barbata Lag. var. rothrockii (Vasey) Gould [Rothrock grama] -- La Barranca.

Brachiaria arizonica (Scribner & Merrill) S. T. Blake; Panicum arizonicum Scribner & Merrill [Arizona panicgrass].             Cited for the Municipio de Yécora in Beetle and Johnson (1991) but misidentified B. fasciculata (COCA).

Deschampsia elongata (Hooker) Munro ex Bentham -- Basaseachi.

*Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk.) Stapf -- Guajaráy. Native to tropical Africa and southeastern Asia.

*Echinochloa muricata (P. Beauv.) Fernald -- Basaseachi, Nabogame. Native to the Old World.

*Eleusine multiflora Hochst. ex A. Rich; E. tristachya Lam.) Lam. -- Basaseachi, Nabogame. Native to the Old World.

Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners; Agropyron trachycaulum (Link) Malte, A. pauciflorum (Keating) Hitchc. [slender wheatgrass] -- Basaseachi.

Elyonurus barbiculmis Hackel -- Nabogame.

Eragrostis erosa Scribner [lovegrass] -- Basaseachi.

Eriochloa acuminata (J. Presl) Kunth var. acuminata; E. gracilis (E. Fourn.) Hitchc. [cupgrass] -- Nabogame.

*Festuca arundinacea Schreber; F. elatior L. [reed, tall fescue] -- Basaseachi. Native to Europe.

Festuca breviglumis Swallen [fescue] -- Basaseachi.

Festuca rubra L. [red fescue] -- Basaseachi.

Leptochloa viscida (Scribner) Beal [sticky sprangletop] -- Tónichi.

Muhlenbergia ciliata (H.B.K.) Trinius -- Basaseachi. Cited for the Municipio de Yécora in Beetle and Johnson (1991) but misidentified M. pectinata (COCA).

Muhlenbergia crispiseta Hitchc. -- Basaseachi.

Muhlenbergia durangensis Herrera – Nabogame.

Muhlenbergia leptoura (Piper) Hitch. – Basaseachi and Nabogame. Cited for the Municipio de Yécora in Beetle and Johnson (1991) but COCA specimen not seen.

Muhlenbergia flaviseta Scribner – Basaseachi.

 

Muhlenbergia pauciflora Buckley [New Mexico muhly] -- Basaeachi Cited for the Municipio de Yécora in Beetle and Johnson (1991) but COCA specimen not seen.

Muhlenbergia pubescens (H.B.K.) Hitchc. -- Basaseachi.

Muhlenbergia strictior Scribner ex Beal -- Basaseachi.

Muhlenbergia tenuifolia (H.B.K.) Trinius [mesa muhly] -- Basaseachi.

Muhlenbergia vaginata Swallen -- Basaseachi.

Muhlenbergia wolfii (Vasey) Rydb. -- Basaseachi.

Panicum sphaerocarpon Elliott -- Basaseachi.

Paspalum setaceum Michx. var. stramineum (Nash) D.J. Banks; P. stramineum Nash -- Nabogame.

Pennisetum karwinskyi Schrad. -- Cañón Estrella.

Poa fendleriana (Steudel) Vasey var. fendleriana [Fendler muttongrass] -- Basaseachi.

*Polypogon viridis (Gouan) Breistr.; Agrostis semiverticillata (Forssk.) C. Christ., A. verticillata Vill., Polypogon semiverticillata (Forssk.) Hylander [water polypogon] -- Nabogame. Native to the Old World.

Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash; Andropogon scoparius Michx. [little bluestem] -- Basaseachi.

Trisetum filifolium Scribner ex Beal -- Basaseachi.

Trisetum viride (H.B.K.) Kunth; T. palmeri Hitchc. -- Basaseachi Cited for the Municipio de Yécora in Beetle and Johnson (1991) but COCA specimen not seen.

Vulpia octoflora (Walt.) Rydb. var. hirtella (Piper) Henrard; Festuca octoflora (Walter) Rydb. subsp. hirtella Piper [six-weeks fescue] -- Tónichi.