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Research and Conservation in Southern Sonora, Mexico

Trees of Southern Sonora

The flora of the Río Mayo Region in southern Sonora is very rich, especially in trees (Martin et al. 1998). Tropical Deciduous Forest (TDF) vegetation is dominated by leguminous trees; the Oak Woodland and Pine-Oak Forests of the Sierra Madre Occidental have a high diversity of oaks and pines. In the New World there are also numerous species of arboreous cacti which are often codominant with the legumes. Cacti are treated in their own section, with the arboreous ones also listed below. The majority of the 287 tree species in Sonora occur in southern Sonora. Some of the more important and interesting species of southern Sonora are described here, including some in communities above and below tropical deciduous forest. Click here for a complete Sonoran list with authors.

As defined by Felger (2000), a tree is a woody plant that attains at least 15 feet in height, usually has a single trunk, and is at least theoretically climbable. The latter criterion allows the inclusion of treelike plants such as the giant cacti. Some of the species listed below are typically shrubs that only occasionally attain tree size.

Asterisks (*) indicate exotic species.

GYMNOSPERMS

CUPRESSACEAE - CYPRESS FAMILY
Juniperus deppeana
Juniperus durangensis
Juniperus mucronata
Taxodium distichum var. mexicanum

PINACEAE - PINE FAMILY
Abies durangensis
Pinus arizonica
Pinus cembroides
Pinus chihuahuana
Pinus discolor
Pinus engelmannii
Pinus hererrae
Pinus lumholtzii
Pinus maximinoi
Pinus oocarpa
Pinus strobiformis
Pinus yecorensis

ANGIOSPERMS

ACERACEAE - MAPLE FAMILY
Acer grandidentatum

AGAVACEAE - AGAVE FAMILY
Yucca grandiflora

ANACARDIACEAE - SUMAC FAMILY
*Spondias purpurea

APOCYNACEAE - DOGBANE FAMILY
Plumeria rubra
Stemmadenia tomentosa palmeri
*
Thevetia peruviana
Vallesia glabra

AQUIFOLIACEAE - HOLLY FAMILY
Ilex rubra
Ilex tolucana

ARALIACEAE - GINSENG FAMILY
Aralia humilis
Dendropanax arboreum

Oreopanax peltatum

ARECACEAE - PALM FAMILY
Brahea aculeata
Brahea dulcis
Brahea nitida

Sabal uresana

ASTERACEAE - DAISY OR COMPOSITE FAMILY
Montanoa rosei subsp. rosei
Parthenium tomentosum var. stramonium

AVICENNIACEAE - BLACK MANGROVE FAMILY
Avicennia germinans

BERBERIDACEAE - BARBERRY FAMILY
Berberis longipes
Berberis aff. moranensis
Berberis pimana

BETULACEAE - ALDER FAMILY
Alnus oblongifolia
Ostrya virginiana

BIGNONIACEAE - BIGNONIA FAMILY
*Crescentia alata
Tabebuia chrysantha
Tabebuia impetiginosa

Tecoma stans
var. angustata

BOMBACACEAE - SILK-COTTON FAMILY
Ceiba acuminata
Pseudobombax palmeri

BORAGINACEAE - BORAGE FAMILY
Cordia sonorae

BUDDLEJACEAE - BUTTEFLY-BUSH FAMILY
Buddleja parviflora
Buddleja sessiliflora

BURSERACEAE - FRANKINCENSE FAMILY
Bursera fagaroides var. elongata
Bursera grandifolia
Bursera lancifolia
Bursera laxiflora
Bursera penicillata
Bursera simarouba
Bursera stenophylla

CACTACEAE - CACTUS FAMILY
Carnegiea gigantea
Cylindropuntia thurberi
Opuntia wilcoxii
Pachycereus pecten-aboriginum
Pilosocereus alensis
Stenocereus montanus
Stenocereus thurberi

CAPPARACEAE - CAPER FAMILY
Capparis atamisquea
Capparis flexuosa
Crataeva palmeri
Forchhammeria watsonii

CAPRIFOLIACEAE - HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY
Sambucus nigra cerulea

CELASTRACEAE - STAFF TREE FAMILY
Maytenus phyllanthoides
Wimmeria mexicana

CLETHRACEAE
Clethra mexicana

COCHLOSPERMACEAE - COCHLOSPERMUM FAMILY
Cochlospermum vitifolium

COMBRETACEAE - COMBRETUM FAMILY
Laguncularia racemosa

CONVOLVULACEAE - MORNING GLORY FAMILY
Ipomoea arborescens

CORNACEAE - DOGWOOD FAMILY
Cornus disciflora

EBENACEAE - EBONY FAMILY
Diospyros sonorae

ERICACEAE - HEATH FAMILY
Arbutus arizonica
Arbutus xalapensis

ERYTHROXYLACEAE - COCA FAMILY
Erythroxylum mexicanum

EUPHORBIACEAE - SPURGE FAMILY
Adelia virgata
Croton fantzianus
Croton flavescens
Drypetes gentryi
Jatropha cordata
Jatropha malacophylla
Hura polyandra

Manihot aesculifolia
Manihot caudata
*Ricinus communis
Sebastiania bilocularis
Sebastiania cornuta
Sebastiania pavoniana

FABACEAE - LEGUME FAMILY
Acacia cochliacantha
Acacia farnesiana
Acacia occidentalis
Acacia pennatula
Acacia russelliana
(= coulteri)
Acacia willardiana
Albizia sinaloensis
Bauhinia pringlei
Brongniartia alamosana
Caesalpinia caladenia
Caesalpinia palmeri
Caesalpinia platyloba
Caesalpinia sclerocarpa
Calliandra houstoniana
Chloroleucon mangense
var. leucospermum
Conzattia multiflora

Diphysa occidentalis
Diphysa suberosa
Erythrina flabelliformis
Eysenhardtia orthocarpa
Haematoxylum brasiletto
Havardia mexicana
Havardia sonorae
Leucaena lanceolata
Leucaena leucocephala
Lonchocarpus hermannii
Lysiloma divaricatum
Lysiloma watsonii
Mimosa palmeri
Olneya tesota
Parkinsonia aculeata
Parkinsonia florida
Parkinsonia praecox
Piscidia mollis
Pithecellobium dulce
Pithecellobium unguis-cati
Platymiscium trifoliatum
Prosopis articulata
Prosopis glandulosa
Prosopis velutina
Senna atomaria

FAGACEAE - BEECH FAMILY
Quercus albocincta
Quercus arizonica
Quercus chihuahuensis
Quercus coccolobifolia
Quercus durifolia
Quercus
Xepileuca
Quercus hypoleucoides
Quercus mcvaughii
Quercus oblongifolia
Quercus perpallida
Quercus rugosa
Quercus scytophylla

Quercus subspathulata
Quercus tarahumara
Quercus toumeyi
Quercus tuberculata
Quercus viminea

FOUQUIERIACEAE - OCOTILLO FAMILY
Fouquieria diguetii
Fouquieria macdougalii

KOEBERLINIACEAE - JUNCO FAMILY
Koeberlinia spinosa

JUGLANDACEAE - WALNUT FAMILY
Juglans major

LAURACEAE - LAUREL FAMILY
Cinnamomum hartmannii
Litsea glaucescens var. subsolitaria
Persea podadenia

MAGNOLIACEAE - MAGNOLIA FAMILY
Magnolia pacifica subsp. tarahumara

MALPIGHIACEAE
Bunchosia sonorensis
Malpighia emarginata

MELIACEAE - MAHOGANY FAMILY
Cedrella odorata
Melia azedarach
Trichilia americana
Trichilia hirta

MORACEAE - MULBERRY FAMILY
Chlorophora tinctoria
Ficus carica
Ficus cotinifolia
Ficus insipida
subsp. insipida
Ficus maxima
Ficus pertusa
Ficus petiolaris
Ficus trigonata
Maclura tinctoria
Morus microphylla
Trophis racemosa

MYRSINACEAE - MYRSINE FAMILY
Ardisia revoluta
Myrsine coriacea

MYRTACEAE - MYRTLE FAMILY
*Eucalyptus camaldulensis
Psidium guajava
Psidium sartorianum

NOLINACEAE - BEARGRASS FAMILY
Nolina bigelovii
Nolina matapensis

NYCTAGINACEAE - FOUR-O'CLOCK FAMILY
Pisonia capitata

OLACACEAE
Schoepfia parviflora
Schoepfia schreberi

OLEACEAE - OLIVE FAMILY
Forestiera pubescens
Forestiera cf. rhamnifolia
Fraxinus papillosa
Osmanthus americanus
Fraxinus velutina

OPILIACEAE
Agonandra racemosa

POLYGONACEAE - BUCKWHEAT FAMILY
Coccoloba goldmanii Standley

PLATANACEAE - PLANE-TREE FAMILY
Platanus racemosa var. wrightii

RHAMNACEAE - BUCKTHORN FAMILY
Colubrina triflora
Condalia globosa
Karwinskia humboldtiana
Rhamnus scopulorum
Ziziphus amole

RHIZOPHORACEAE - MANGROVE FAMILY
Rhizophora mangle

ROSACEAE - ROSE FAMILY
Prunus gentryi
Prunus persica
Prunus serotina subsp. virens var. virens
Prunus zingii

RUBIACEAE - MADDER FAMILY
Cephalanthus salicifolius
Chiococca petrina
Hamelia mexiae
Hintonia latiflora
Psychotria mexiae
Randia echinocarpa
Randia laevigata
Randia obcordata

RUTACEAE - CITRUS FAMILY
Amyris balsamifera
Casimiroa edulis
Esenbeckia hartmanii
Zanthoxylum fagara

SALICACEAE - WILLOW FAMILY
Populus mexicana
Populus monticola
Salix bonplandiana
Salix exilifolia
Salix gooddingii
Salix lasiolepis
Xylosoma flexuosum

SAPINDACEAE - SOAPBERRY FAMILY
Sapindus saponaria
Thouia acuminata
Thouia villosa

SAPOTACEAE - SAPOTE FAMILY
Sideroxylon occidentale
Sideroxylon persimile
Sideroxylon tepicense

SIMAROUBACEAE - QUASSIA-WOOD FAMILY
Alvaradoa amorphoides

SOLANACEAE - NIGHTSHADE FAMILY
Cestrum tomentosum
Nicotiana glauca
Solanum erianthum

STERCULIACEAE - STERCULIA FAMILY
Guazuma ulmifolia

TAMARICACEAE - TAMARISK FAMILY
*Tamarix aphylla
*Tamarix ramosissima

THEOPHRASTACEAE - THEOPHRASTA FAMILY
Jacquinia macrocarpa subsp. pungens

TILIACEAE - LINDEN FAMILY
Heliocarpus attenuatus
Heliocarpus palmeri
Tilia americana var. mexicana

ULMACEAE - ELM FAMILY
Aphananthe monoica
Celtis iguanea
Celtis reticulata
Celtis pallida

URTICACEAE - NETTLE FAMILY
Urera caracasana

VERBENACEAE - VERVAIN FAMILY
Lippia gentryi
Vitex mollis
Vitex pyramidata

ZYGOPHYLLACEAE - CALTROP FAMILY
Guaiacum coulteri